Harvesting your own chestnuts from the garden behind the house – a paradisiacal idea. But can the demands of the sweet chestnut be met in our latitudes?
The good news first: Yes, chestnuts can in principle also be cultivated as a garden tree in our country – as long as the location is right. It is no longer possible to determine exactly where the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) originated. Since ancient times, however, it has been widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. It probably found its way across the Alps with the Romans. As the “bread of the poor”, chestnuts were already part of the diet long before the potato became widespread in our country. Especially in regions where grain cultivation was not possible, sweet chestnut flour replaced ground grain.
Once it feels at home, however, the sweet chestnut has what it takes to become a lovable house tree, because with a height of up to 30 m and a crown up to 20 m wide, the beech plant becomes quite stately. This should definitely be taken into account when planting: the freshly planted tree should have a radius of at least 8 m all around. If you don’t have the space, you should go for grafted varieties, which remain much more compact at up to 10 m in height. Suitable varieties include ‘Tisenser’ from South Tyrol and the Austrian variety ‘Ecker’.
Since sweet chestnuts also depend on cross-pollination (by wind and insects), they need a second chestnut tree in the nutrient environment. If the tree flowers without bearing fruit, the pollinator tree is simply missing.
The ideal location
As a heat-loving tree species, the sweet chestnut requires an appropriately protected location in our region. More problematic for a crop failure in this case, however, is not the late frost, but a damp and cool summer at the time of flowering and pollination – and this can hardly be influenced.
To achieve the temperature sum necessary for the thriving of the sweet chestnut, it is important to have a location protected from cold winds. Ideal is a place by the house or in front of a south-facing stone wall. In the juvenile stage, the cold-sensitive trees should be protected from frost. A white trunk coating is also recommended for older specimens to protect them from sunburn and trunk cracking.
Aside from plenty of space, the site should definitely offer full sun for the tree to bloom profusely and produce chestnuts. Ideally, the soil should be rich in humus, well-drained and slightly acidic. However, the soil condition generally plays a less important role than the “above ground” microclimatic conditions.
If all conditions are right, you can look forward – in the case of grafted varieties already after three standing years – to flowering in June/July and, from October, to many spiny fruit pods that fall to the ground when fully ripe, releasing two to three nut fruits (chestnuts).
How to prune?
When the tree is young, it is pruned in the same way as fruit trees to build up a so-called pyramidal crown. After that, no special pruning measures are required. Only occasional thinning and removal of competing branches may be necessary.
The sweet chestnut forest at Lake Attersee
In Austria, sweet chestnuts grow sporadically and predominantly in warm wine-growing areas or in locally favored locations. Only in Unterach am Attersee/Ktn. there is an approximately 7 ha large sweet chestnut forest with up to 300 years old tree giants. It has been a nature reserve since 1989 and is considered the only sweet chestnut forest north of the Alps. The trees were once planted – when exactly, there are different statements. However, it can be assumed that they date back to the Romans, who once settled here.
Tip: A forest nature trail leads from the center of Unterach am Attersee to the chestnut forest.
I have 30 years of experience and i started this website to see if i could try and share my knowledge to help you.
With a degree a Horticulture BSc (Hons)
I have worked as a horticulture specialist lead gardener, garden landscaper, and of course i am a hobby gardener at home in my own garden.
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