Last updated on October 23rd, 2023 at 08:24 pm
Originally, the hibiscus, also called marshmallow, comes from China. Opulent, mauve-like flowers usually decorate it throughout the summer. Most commonly planted in this country is the garden hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus), which has many varieties with diverse flower colors to offer. Pruning your hibiscus can positively affect the growth of the shrub. We’ll tell you what to look for in education, maintenance and rejuvenation pruning.
What is the purpose of pruning?
By pruning your hibiscus, you can create an even shape, support plant health, and encourage growth and flowering. Pruning is not a must, however. Since hibiscus species are basically very robust woody plants and they grow evenly, extreme interventions are by no means necessary.
Minimal pruning provides more energy for sprouting, ensures strong new shoots and promotes branching. Because the hibiscus blooms exclusively on its shoots of this year, you also achieve a lush flowering. Only in the case of very old plants that lack vigor, a somewhat stronger rejuvenation pruning is used.
When should you prune a hibiscus?
The ideal time to prune your hibiscus is early in the year. If you prune in late winter, the flowering shrub can use its accumulated vigor for a strong budding season. Also, because it is at the beginning of its growing season, the cuts will heal especially quickly.
It is important that you prune the hibiscus before new shoots appear. Pruning deciduous shrubs before they sprout also gives you the practical advantage of not having foliage blocking the view of buds and branches.
The right time for pruning woody plants
In most cases, pruning of woody plants should be done at the beginning of the year, just before budbreak. Exceptions are early-flowering woody plants that have already set their flower buds last fall.
Smoothly cut branches with a clean wound surface heal the fastest. To do this, set the scissors so that you can remove the shoot in one go and do not have to set several times. After all, each unnecessary injury costs the plant strength.
When shortening a shoot, cut slightly obliquely in the direction of an eye (the dormant bud). When removing a shoot, cut back to the branch ring (the small bulge at the base of each shoot). A small portion of it should be left in place, as this is where the plant’s reserve wound healing material is located. If cut too deeply, the main shoot will be injured. If too much is left standing, it will take longer for the cut to overgrow, and disease can more easily invade.
Prune hibiscus after planting
If you want to plant a young shrub, the first pruning can be done immediately after planting, a so-called education pruning. This will encourage a richly branched crown from the start. To do this, shorten the shoots of the hibiscus by about half, each above an outward-facing eye.
Maintain shape and health: Maintenance pruning
When the hibiscus already has its basic shape, follow up with annual maintenance pruning. Proceed according to the following points:
- maintain shape.
Small pruning measures support and optimize the naturally slightly funnel-shaped habit of the hibiscus. Shoots growing crosswise into the interior of the plant or downward disturb the overall appearance. They may be removed directly at the branch ring – ideally already at a young stage.
Supporting the habit of the species
It is advisable to merely support the typical habit of the woody plants by pruning. Pruning against the natural growth habit is difficult to maintain and often means a lot of work.
Pruning a hibiscus promotes its flowering, as heavy pruning encourages vigorous budding with long shoots. For abundant flowering of the hibiscus, this is precisely what is important. Therefore, you can consistently shorten all shoots from last year to about three to five eyes. Keep in mind the pyramidal growth habit and leave the central shoots slightly longer than the outer ones. In addition, one eye should always be on top, pointing outward. This allows the shrub to unfold gracefully to the sides.
- thinning and maintaining health
Always remove dead wood and areas infested with disease or pests to keep the hibiscus healthy. When doing this, you can cut the shoot down to the nearest eye that is still healthy.
If the shoots are too crowded, remove some to the base so that the crown becomes more airy again. If there are two competing shoots growing from the same fork and in the same direction, remove one of them as well.
Prune old hibiscus with rejuvenation pruning.
If you want to prune an older hibiscus that has already lost its flowering vigor, a more severe pruning is recommended. To do this, also remove bulky and inward-growing shoots. Then shorten each shoot to about 50 cm.
In addition, you can do some thinning and cut back some branches that are too close to their base. It may happen that the hibiscus will not bloom again until the following year. Nevertheless, the pruning will strengthen it and it will be able to sprout more vigorously again in the future.
Only with sharpened tools can a cut be made that the woody plant can cope with well. For pruning hibiscus, you can use ordinary secateurs. If thicker branches need to be shortened during a rejuvenation pruning, a small hand tree saw is suitable. Before pruning woody plants, you should also clean the tool, otherwise you may transmit diseases in the garden.